Visual Arts

Internatial Baccalaureate

ART Study Guide

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ART Course Overview

Visual Arts Subject Aims

The aims of the arts subjects are to enable students to:

  • enjoy lifelong engagement with arts

  • become informed, reflective and critical art practitioners

  • understand the dynamic and changing nature of the arts

  • explore and value the diversity of the arts across time, place and cultures

  • express ideas with confidence and competence

  • develop perceptual and analytical skills.

  • create art that is influenced by personal and cultural contexts

  • develop skills, techniques and processes in order to communicate concepts and ideas

 

Visual Arts

Art Theory

In this course, students will have experience of examining and comparing the work of artists from different times, places and cultures, using a range of critical methodologies, considering the cultural contexts influencing their own work and the work of others.


Students should develop the ability to research and analyse art-making practices from a variety of cultural contexts and to make informed comparisons between them. Students should be guided through the process of critical analysis, identifying and critiquing the formal qualities of a range of artworks, objects and artifacts from a range of origins. They should interpret the function and purpose of works, evaluate their significance within the cultural contexts in which they were created, and compare and contrast different pieces, demonstrating that they are able to articulate their understanding in both visual and written forms. 

 

Within the “cultural context”, students should be encouraged to consider the historical, political, social, aesthetic and intellectual contexts from which art can evolve and to which it can contribute.

 

Taught activities for this area might include:

  • an introduction to the use of the visual arts journal as a record of individual inquiry and investigation, with particular emphasis on how to appropriately cite sources

  • demonstrations, discussions, oral and written presentations about how to begin critiquing artworks, with reference to various cultural contexts, differing art forms and artists

  • lessons in art history—these might include an overview of developments and movements from earliest times to the present day, the provision of timelines for reference, with accompanying contextual background (such as historical and sociopolitical influences, cultural and technological achievements and events)

  • identifying and engaging with available secondary sources (such as books and audio-visual materials) through the use of the art department library, school resource centre or appropriate art-specific internet sites

  • identifying and discussing the formal qualities of particular works as a whole class

  • providing an introduction to a range of models for analysing, critiquing, interpreting and deconstructing artworks, offering opportunities for students to engage with these and become familiar with them

  • identifying and engaging with primary and secondary sources such as galleries, libraries and working artists

  • learning specialist art vocabulary and terms through the use of a glossary.

 

In this course, students will have experience of looking at different techniques for making art, investigating and comparing how and why different techniques have evolved and the processes involved. Students should look at different practices for making art from a variety of cultural contexts. They should investigate how different techniques and practices have evolved and through this be able to articulate an understanding of the range of possible approaches to creating original artwork.

 

Taught activities for this area might include:

  • investigating how processes in art have changed and how media or techniques have developed or technologically evolved over time

  • familiarization with various art genres, styles, regional schools and associations

  • presentation of the range of media, techniques and equipment available to students within the art department and elsewhere within the school

  • identification of expertise available to students, within the school and locally (such as local practising artists, the areas of special interest of art department staff and other relevant staff expertise in ICT, design technology and so on)

  • demonstrations of available practices and techniques as used by a range of artists and provision of practical guides (such as books, audio-visual material and so on) which deal with specific techniques.

 

In this course students must have experience of exploring ways of communicating through visual and written means, making artistic choices about how to most effectively communicate knowledge and understanding.


Students are encouraged to identify how their own work or that of others fulfills stated intentions and what meanings are communicated and how. They will understand that the concept of an exhibition is broad and encompasses many variables. They will investigate where and why finished pieces are selected for public display, explore the role of the curator and curatorial practices, and begin to understand and appreciate the decision-making process involved in communicating with audiences and presenting work. This syllabus area also examines the impact that diverse modes of presentation can have on an audience or viewers.

 

Taught activities for this area might include: 

  • guided investigations into the role of the curator and curatorial practices through visits to galleries and artists’ studios, reviewing catalogues for local exhibitions, presentations by visiting artists and exploration of alternative display spaces—this is supported by individual research with entries in the visual arts journal and shared oral feedback

  • the study of artist statements and accepted conventions for titling and annotating exhibited works 

  • practice in applying the knowledge gained to their own work and that of others through the creation of mini-exhibitions of students’ own work supported by appropriate artist statements, with attention to display and labeling

  • curating an imaginary exhibition, identifying an appropriate exhibition context, selecting a particular artist’s work or using artwork from a selected movement, culture or tradition and producing appropriate accompanying documentation.

 

Art Making 

Teachers must ensure that students at SL and HL have experience of making art through a process of investigation, thinking critically and experimenting with techniques, applying identified techniques to their own developing work.


Students should be given the opportunity to experiment with art-making practices they have identified in their research and their analysis of art-making practices from a variety of cultural contexts. They should engage with artists and artworks that particularly inspire them and experiment with the skills, media, materials, techniques and processes involved. These can take the form of simple transcriptions, through which the students seek to find out how particular elements of artworks have been created or how specific effects have been achieved, or more in-depth studies through which students follow a process through to creating a larger body of work inspired by the artist, artwork or artifact. To enable students to develop proficiency in their own preferred areas of expertise as they progress through the course it is expected that they will have been exposed to a breadth of contrasting skills, techniques, media, production processes, materials and practices and incorporate these into their own repertoire of art-making strategies.

 

Taught activities for this area might include:

  • technical instruction and demonstrations in the use of particular media (such as oil painting, ink drawing, clay modeling, digital techniques and so on) with reference to particular artists

  • investigating the historical and technological changes and developments of particular media and techniques

  • hands-on, guided workshop sessions for students in the use of media and techniques, supported by visiting specialists where appropriate

  • guided projects influenced by particular artists, with particular reference to the media and technique used and the methods involved

  • associated relevant class theory lessons (such as colour theory, history of pigments and so on).

 

In this course, students will have experience of experimenting with diverse media, exploring techniques for making art and developing concepts through processes that are informed by skills, techniques and media. Students should experiment with a variety of different media, techniques and processes that are appropriate to their own contexts, conceptual development and intentions.


Taught activities for this area might include:

  • group or whole-class workshops and demonstrations as well as individual studio practice to facilitate individual experiences in media and techniques (including two-dimensional forms, three-dimensional forms and lens-based, electronic and screen-based forms) with particular reference to the historical development of processes and techniques and different cultural and traditional uses of these

  • guiding students to consider and record the potential of these experiences in the visual arts journal, reflecting on students’ individual intentions and ideas

  • visual recordings of individual student practical processes

  • exploring digital means of capturing art-making practice as it occurs and creating a record of experimentation and exploration with acquired skills.

 

In this course, students will have experience of producing a body of artwork through a process of reflection and evaluation, showing a synthesis of skill, media and concept. Students will develop their own work for presentation, consider what messages they want to communicate about it to an audience and begin selecting a sample for exhibition. Students will produce a body of their own resolved and unresolved artworks that demonstrate both technical proficiency and conceptual strengths.


Taught activities for this area might include:

  • reviewing resolved and unresolved works, individual reflection and guided decision-making

  • regular individual drafting and redrafting of artist statements of intention

  • ongoing individual guided studio work, in the light of student’s own developing artist statements

  • workshops in presentation techniques which include refining personal statements, matting, mounts, layout and producing exhibition text.

 

Art Curatorial

Teachers must ensure that students at SL and HL have experience of developing an informed response to work, with students beginning to formulate personal intentions for creating and displaying their own artworks. Students must be encouraged to develop their own informed individual responses to work and exhibitions they have seen and experienced. They should begin to formulate their own intentions for making original artworks and identify inspirations from a variety of different sources. Students should be capable of clearly expressing their own unique voice through their art-making.

 

Taught activities for this area might include:

  • guided visits to local galleries and community arts initiatives, with particular attention to the curatorial aspects and to identifying individual artists’ purposes, influences and inspirations through their artist statements

  • sharing feedback after such visits in a variety of forms (teacher-led, pair and group discussions and presentations, written reflections in the visual arts journal and occasionally more formal assignments)

  • consideration of how students’ own work will be affected by that of other artists. Discussions might include the use of transcription as a valid learning tool and the role of appropriation in visual arts work

  • creating Mind Maps of individual ideas for artwork as inspired by work seen elsewhere.

 

In this course, students will have experience of evaluating how their ongoing work communicates meaning and purpose, considering the nature of “exhibition” and thinking about the process of selection and the potential impact of their work on different audiences.

 

Students will be encouraged to reflect upon their developing work with particular focus on how the intended meaning and purpose are communicated. Students need to identify opportunities for further development in the work being undertaken. Students should be encouraged to consider the nature of “exhibition” and consider the role and functions of galleries and museums. They should critique their successes and failures in relation to their intentions and consider how their developing work might impact on an audience if presented for public display.

 

Taught activities for this area might include:

  • talks given by visiting artists about how they put together exhibitions of their own work, with particular emphasis on deciding what to include, what to leave out and why

  • looking at and critiquing exhibition reviews in journals

  • TOK-linked discussions about the ethics of museums and curatorial artifacts

  • exemplar sessions led by the teacher or visiting artist which detail art projects from inquiry and ideas, action and development, application of techniques to concepts, through to evaluation and reflection upon work in progress and/or final product—students are taught to critique in terms of meaning, purpose and success in communication of the idea(s) and development of technique

  • student presentations in the same vein, with group discussions and feedback

  • renewed approaches and application to individual studio work following these review sessions

  • use of the visual arts journal to identify not only successes, but also reflecting on “finest failures” within the art-making process and considering how these might drive further experimentation and inquiry.

 

In this course, students will have experience of selecting and presenting resolved works for exhibition, explaining the ways in which the works are connected and discussing how artistic judgments impact the overall presentation.


Students will select a sample of resolved work and reflect on what makes these effective pieces for exhibition, particularly in response to their own clearly stated intentions and the messages they wanted to communicate about their artwork. The taught syllabus should be flexible enough to ensure that students can create and display a range of artworks. An integral part of this experience is the process of self-reflection and an awareness of how viewers can engage with artwork in different kinds of exhibition contexts and venues.


Taught activities for this area might include:

  • practice in compiling reflective commentaries on individual artworks

  • individual presentations supported by group and class discussions which consider work for exhibition—this process involves identifying projects and pieces which communicate and interest the viewer as well as critiquing work from a technical point of view; discussions focus on improving and developing work in progress

  • modeling and monitoring student compilation of exhibition text and other accompanying written material; students identify, contextualize and justify their selections for exhibition.

 

Art Subject course information was found at https://goo.gl/U2cfmD

 

Your Visual Arts Journal


Throughout the course, you are required to maintain a visual arts journal that documents:

  • the development of art-making skills and techniques

  • experiments with media and technologies

  • personal reflections

  • their responses to first-hand observations

  • creative ideas for exploration and development

  • their evaluations of art practices and art-making experiences

  • their responses to diverse stimuli and to artists and their works

  • detailed evaluations and critical analysis

  • records of valued feedback received

  • challenges they have faced and their achievements.


Students should be encouraged to find the most appropriate ways of recording their development and have free choice in deciding what form the visual arts journal should take. The aim of the visual arts journal is to support and nurture the acquisition of skills and ideas, to record developments, and to critique challenges and successes. It is expected that much of the written work submitted for the assessment tasks at the end of the course will have evolved and been drawn from the contents of the visual arts journal. Although sections of the journal will be selected, adapted and presented for assessment, the journal itself is not directly assessed or moderated. It is, however, regarded as a fundamental activity of the course.

 

Art Making Output


Throughout the course students are expected to experience working with a variety of different art-making and conceptual forms. SL students should, as a minimum, experience working with at least two art-making forms, each selected from separate columns of the table below. HL students should, as a minimum, experience working with at least three art-making forms, selected from a minimum of two columns of the table below. The examples given are for guidance only and are not intended to represent a definitive list. 

 

Interaction and engagement with local artists or collections as well as visits to museums, galleries, exhibitions and other kinds of presentations provide valuable first-hand opportunities for investigation and should be used to inform student work wherever possible. Personal responses to these experiences should be documented in the visual arts journal.

 

Two-dimensional forms:

  • Drawing: such as charcoal, pencil, ink

  • Painting: such as acrylic, oil, watercolour

  • Printmaking: such as relief, intaglio, planographic, chine collé

  • Graphics: such as illustration and design

 

Three-dimensional forms:

  • Sculpture: such as ceramics, found objects, wood, assemblage

  • Designed objects: such as fashion, architectural, vessels

  • Site specific/ephemeral: such as land art, installation, mural

  • Textiles: such as fibre, weaving, printed fabric 

 

Lens-based, electronic and screen based forms:

  • Time-based and sequential art: such as animation, graphic novel, storyboard

  • Lens media: such as still, moving, montage

  • Digital/screen based: such as vector graphics, software generated

 

Research

When carrying out research, students should be encouraged to consult a suitable range of primary and secondary sources. As well as the more obvious sources (books, websites, videos, DVDs, articles) research may also include art-making experiences and encounters such as workshops, lectures, correspondence with experts and visits to exhibitions. All sources consulted during the course must be cited following the protocol of the referencing style chosen by the school and be presented in a bibliography or as footnotes.

 

 

 

Visual Arts Assessment

Visual Arts Standard Level ~ Assessment Tasks IBDP
SL External Assessment

Part 1: Comparative Study
Students at SL analyse and compare different artworks by different artists. This independent critical and contextual investigation explores artworks, objects and artifacts from differing cultural contexts.

  • SL students submit 10–15 screens which examine and compare at least three artworks, at least two of which should be by different artists. The work selected for comparison and analysis should come from contrasting contexts (local, national, international and/or intercultural).

  • SL students submit a list of sources used.

Weighting -- 20%


Part 2: Process Portfolio
Students at SL submit carefully selected materials which evidence their experimentation, exploration, manipulation and refinement of a variety of visual arts activities during the two year course.

  • SL students submit 9–18 screens which evidence their sustained experimentation, exploration, manipulation and refinement of a variety of art-making activities. For SL students the submitted work must be in at least two art-making forms, each from separate columns of the art-making forms table. 

Weighting -- 40%

 

SL Internal Assessment

This task is internally assessed by the teacher and externally moderated by the IB at the end of the course.

 

Part 3: Exhibition
Students at SL submit for assessment a selection of resolved artworks from their exhibition. The selected pieces should show evidence of their technical accomplishment during the visual arts course and an understanding of the use of materials, ideas and practices appropriate to visual communication.
•     SL students submit a curatorial rationale that does not exceed 400 words.
•     SL students submit 4–7 artworks.
•     SL students submit exhibition text (stating the title, medium, size and intention) for each selected artwork.


SL students may submit two photographs of their overall exhibition. These exhibition photographs provide an understanding of the context of the exhibition and the size and scope of the works. While the photographs will not be used to assess individual artworks, they may give the moderator insight into how a candidate has considered the overall experience of the viewer in their exhibition. 

Weighting -- 40%

 

Visual Arts Higher Level ~ Assessment Tasks IBDP
HL External Assessment

Part 1: Comparative Study
Students at HL analyse and compare different artworks by different artists. This independent critical and contextual investigation explores artworks, objects and artefacts from differing cultural contexts.

  • HL students submit 10–15 screens which examine and compare at least three artworks, at least two of which need to be by different artists. The works selected for comparison and analysis should come from contrasting contexts (local, national, international and/or intercultural).

  • HL students submit 3–5 screens which analyse the extent to which their work and practices have been influenced by the art and artists examined.

  • HL students submit a list of sources used. 

Weighting -- 20%


Part 2: Process Portfolio

Students at HL submit carefully selected materials which evidence their experimentation, exploration, manipulation and refinement of a variety of visual arts activities during the two-year course.

  • HL students submit 13–25 screens which evidence their sustained experimentation, exploration, manipulation and refinement of a variety of art-making activities. For HL students the submitted work must have been created in at least three art-making forms, selected from a minimum of two columns of the art-making forms table. 

Weighting -- 40%

 

HL Internal Assessment

This task is internally assessed by the teacher and externally moderated by the IB at the end of the course.

 

Part 3: Exhibition

Students at HL submit for assessment a selection of resolved artworks from their exhibition. The selected pieces should show evidence of their technical accomplishment during the visual arts course and an understanding of the use of materials, ideas and practices appropriate to visual communication.

  • HL students submit a curatorial rationale that does not exceed 700 words.

  • HL students submit 8–11 artworks.

  • HL students submit exhibition text (stating the title, medium, size and intention) for each selected artwork.


HL students may submit two photographs of their overall exhibition. These exhibition photographs provide an understanding of the context of the exhibition and the size and scope of the works. While the photographs will not be used to assess individual artworks, they may give the moderator insight into how a candidate has considered the overall experience of the viewer in their exhibition. 

Weighting -- 40%

Visual Arts Assessment Objectives

Visual Arts Assessment Objective 1: demonstrate knowledge and understanding of specified content

  • Identify various contexts in which the visual arts can be created and presented techniques

  • Describe artwork from differing contexts, and identify the ideas, conventions employed by the art-makers processes associated with the visual arts

  • Recognize the skills, techniques, media, forms

  • Present work, using appropriate visual arts language, as appropriate to intentions

 

Visual Arts Assessment Objective 2: demonstrate application and analysis of knowledge and understanding meaning through visual communication 

  • meaning through visual communicationandExpress concepts, ideas

  • artworks from a variety of different contextsAnalyse

  • Apply knowledge and understanding of skills, techniques, media, forms and processes related to art making

 

Visual Arts Assessment Objective 3: demonstrate synthesis and evaluation

  • Critically analyse and discuss artworks created by themselves and others and articulate an informed personal response

  • Formulate personal intentions for the planning, development and making of artworks that consider how meaning can be conveyed to an audience

  • Demonstrate the use of critical reflection to highlight success and failure in order to progress work

  • Evaluate how and why art-making evolves and justify the choices made in their own visual practice

 

Visual Arts Assessment Objective 4: select, use and apply a variety of appropriate skills and techniques

  • Experiment with different media, materials and techniques in art-making

  • Make appropriate choices in the selection of images, media, materials and techniques in art-making

  • Demonstrate technical proficiency in the use and application of skills, techniques, media, images, forms and processes

  • Produce a body of resolved and unresolved artworks as appropriate to intentions

Visual Arts External Assessment Criteria

Part 1: Comparative Study

A ~ Analysis of formal qualities (6 marks)
B ~ Interpretation of function and purpose (6 marks)
C ~ Evaluation of cultural significance (6 marks)
D ~ Making comparisons and connections (6 marks)
E ~ Presentation and subject-specific language (6 marks)

F ~ (HL only) Making connections to own art-making practice (12 marks)

 

Part 2: Process portfolio 

A ~ Skills, techniques and processes (12 marks)
B ~ Critical investigation (6 marks)
C ~ Communication of ideas and intentions (6 marks)
D ~ Reviewing, refining and reflecting (6 marks)
E ~ Presentation and subject-specific language (6 marks)

 

Visual Arts Mark Scheme for External Assessment
Part 1: Comparative Study
Criteria A. Analysis of formal qualities

To what extent does the work demonstrate effective identification and analysis of the formal qualities of the selected artworks, objects and artifacts? Candidates who do not examine and compare at least 3 artworks by at least 2 different artists will not be awarded a mark higher than 3 in this criteria. 

 

0 ~ The work does not reach a standard identified by the descriptors below
1–2 ~ The work identifies some formal qualities of the selected pieces from at least two cultural origins. There is little or no attempt at analysis.
3–4 ~ The work identifies and describes the formal qualities of the selected pieces from at least two cultural origins. The analysis of these formal qualities is inconsistent.
5–6 ~ The work identifies and analyses the formal qualities of the selected pieces from at least two cultural origins. The analysis of these formal qualities is consistently informed and effective. 

 

Criteria B. Interpretation of function and purpose

To what extent does the work demonstrate informed and appropriate interpretation of the function and purpose of the selected artworks, objects
and artifacts within the cultural context in which they were created? Candidates who do not examine and compare at least 3 artworks by at least 2 different artists will not be awarded a mark higher than 3 in this criterion.

 

0 ~ The work does not reach a standard identified by the descriptors below
1–2 ~ The work demonstrates an interpretation of the function and purpose of the selected pieces within the cultural context in which they were created, but this is largely undeveloped, superficial or relies heavily on personal opinion.
3–4 ~ The work demonstrates an interpretation of the function and purpose of the selected pieces within the cultural context in which they were created, although this is not always consistently informed or developed.
5–6 ~ The work demonstrates a consistently informed and appropriate interpretation of the function and purpose of the selected pieces within the cultural context in which they were created. 

 

Criteria C. Evaluation of cultural significance

To what extent does the work demonstrate informed understanding of the cultural significance of the selected artworks, objects and artifacts
within the specific context in which they were created? Candidates who do not examine and compare at least 3 artworks by at least 2 different artists will not be awarded a mark higher than 3 in this criterion. 

 

0 ~ The work does not reach a standard identified by the descriptors below
1–2 ~ The work demonstrates an evaluation of the material, conceptual and cultural significance of the selected pieces within the specific context in which they were created, but this is largely undeveloped, superficial or relies heavily on personal opinion.
3–4 ~ The work demonstrates an evaluation of the material, conceptual and cultural significance of the selected pieces within the specific context in which they were created, although this is not always consistently informed or developed.
5–6 ~ The work demonstrates consistently informed and appropriate evaluation of the material, conceptual and cultural significance of the selected pieces within the specific context in which they were created. 

 

Criteria D. Making comparisons and connections

To what extent does the work demonstrate effective identification and critical analysis of the connections, similarities and differences between
the selected artworks, objects and artifacts? Candidates who do not examine and compare at least 3 artworks by at least 2 different artists will not be awarded a mark higher than 3 in this criterion. 

 

0 ~ The work does not reach a standard identified by the descriptors below
1–2 ~ The work outlines connections, similarities and differences between the selected pieces, with little critical analysis. These connections are largely superficial or inappropriate and demonstrate a basic understanding of how the pieces compare.
3–4 ~ The work describes the connections, similarities and differences between the selected pieces, with some underdeveloped critical analysis. The connections are logical and coherent and demonstrate a sound understanding of how the pieces compare.
5–6 ~ The work critically analyses the connections, similarities and differences between the selected pieces. These connections are logical and coherent, showing a thorough understanding of how the pieces compare. 

 

Criteria E. Presentation and subject-specific language

To what extent does the work ensure that information is conveyed clearly and coherently in a visually appropriate and legible
manner, supported by the consistent use of appropriate subject-specific language? 

 

0 ~ The work does not reach a standard identified by the descriptors below
1–2 ~ The work makes some attempt to convey information clearly or in a visually appropriate manner; however this may be inconsistent or not always appropriate. There is some attempt to use subject-specific language but this may be infrequent or with inaccuracies.
3–4 ~ The work clearly and coherently conveys information, in a visually appropriate and legible manner, with some consistent use of appropriate subject-specific language.
5–6 ~ The work clearly and coherently conveys information which results in a visually appropriate, legible and engaging study. Subject-specific language is used accurately and appropriately throughout. 

 

At HL only ~ Criteria F. Making connections to own art-making practice

To what extent does the work analyse and reflect on the outcomes of the comparative study investigation and on how this has influenced the student’s own development as an artist, identifying connections between one or more of the selected works and the student’s own art-making processes and practices? 

 

0 ~ The work does not reach a standard identified by the descriptors below
1–3 ~ The work outlines the outcomes of the investigation making few or only superficial connections to their own art-making practice.
4–6 ~ The work describes the outcomes of the investigation but without considering the implications on their own development. The student makes attempts to make connections to their own art-making practice, but these are inconsistent or superficial.
7–9 ~ The work reflects upon the outcomes of the investigation consistently with some attempts at analysis and consideration of their own development, however this lacks depth. The student makes some meaningful connections to their own art-making practice, but these are underdeveloped.
10–12 ~ The work analyses and reflects upon the outcomes of the investigation consistently and appropriately. The student effectively considers their own development, making informed and meaningful connections to their own art-making practice.

 

Visual Arts Mark Scheme for External Assessment
Part 2: Process Portfolio

Students at SL and HL submit carefully selected materials which demonstrate their experimentation, exploration, manipulation and refinement of a variety of visual arts activities during the two-year course. The work, which may be extracted from their visual arts journal and other sketch books, notebooks, folios and so on, should have led to the creation of both resolved and unresolved works. The selected process portfolio work should show evidence of their technical accomplishment during the visual arts course and an understanding of the use of materials, ideas and practices appropriate to visual communication. They should be carefully selected to match the requirements of the assessment criteria at the highest possible level. The work selected for submission should show how students have explored and worked with a variety of techniques, effects and processes in order to extend their art-making skills base. This will include focused, experimental, developmental, observational, skill-based, reflective, imaginative and creative experiments which may have led to refined outcomes.

 

 

Command Terms

IBDP Visual Arts 

 

Command Terms
  • Analyse ~ Break down in order to bring out the essential elements or structure.    

  • Apply ~ Use an idea, equation, principle, theory or law in relation to a given problem or issue. 

  • Compare and contrast ~ Give an account of the similarities and differences between two (or more) items or situations, referring to both (all) of them throughout.  

  • Contrast ~ Give an account of the differences between two (or more) items or situations, referring to both (all) of them throughout.

  • Demonstrate ~ Make clear by reasoning or evidence, illustrating with examples or practical application.    

  • Describe ~ Give a detailed account.    

  • Discuss ~ Offer a considered and balanced review that includes a range of arguments, factors or hypotheses. Opinions or conclusions should be presented clearly and supported by appropriate evidence.    

  • Evaluate  ~ Make an appraisal by weighing up the strengths and limitations.

  • Examine ~ Consider an argument or concept in a way that uncovers the assumptions and interrelationships of the issue.    

  • Explain ~ Give a detailed account, including reasons or causes.    

  • Explore ~ Undertake a systematic process of discovery.    

  • IIdentify ~ Provide an answer from a number of possibilities.    

  • Justify ~ Give valid reasons or evidence to support an answer or conclusion.  

  • List ~ Give a sequence of brief answers with no explanation.    

  • Outline ~ Give a brief account or summary.    

  • Present ~ Offer for display, observation, examination or consideration.

  • Show ~ Give the steps in a calculation or derivation.    

  • To what extent ~ Consider the merits or otherwise of an argument or concept. Opinions and conclusions should be presented clearly and supported with appropriate evidence and sound argument.    


Art IB Resources

Great IB Visual Art Resources:

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© 2019 DEEPEE. Luke Cameron Watson

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